Images Life: apollo 11 moon landing astronaut neil armstrong building conspiracy theory did we land on the moon contractor engineer home kitchen national aeronautics and space administration national aeronautics and space administration nasa structure
The Apollo 11 mission was simple: make the manned lunar landing mission and return safely. (Acquired). Perhaps you remember being glued to the TV screen with Walter Cronkite on July 20.1969, as Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong became the first human to walk on the surface of the moon, followed by Buzz Aldrin. In one of the most famous quotations in history, American astronaut Neil Armstrong said: "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." Not many people know that the word "one" lost in the transmission of radio. Moreover, there can not be born yet. "They were alive when the man on the moon?" In 2006, I was watching a lunar module (LM) in the Smithsonian museum, totally surprised by what appeared amateur construction. It seemed as if it had been built in someone's garage from old appliance parts and foil colors. Talking about seeing the July 1969 Apollo 11 moon landing on television and how frightening it must have been to land on the moon in this "new rich" of the lunar module, a young couple approached and asked in all amazement, "I live when man walked on the moon? "After thanking the young couple I wanted to believe it was a compliment to not look as old as I am, again said they had heard the theories about the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Neil pretending Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landing of Apollo 11 lunar module Eagle on the Moon. The young couple did not believe that the command module Columbia took the eagle in the space LM that landed in the Sea of ??Tranquility. The Great Moon HoaxIt is true that many people have questioned the Apollo 11 moon landing. In 2001, Fox television aired a program called Conspiracy Theory: Did We Land on the Moon? NASA defends many challenges for the landing on the moon, like shadows on the moon at the time of landing, lunar rocks are about 3.7 million years, and the bright stars in the images with the astronauts. Another challenge in the moon hoax flag waving Grande was placed on the surface of the moon by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. There is no wind on the moon, say the conspiracy theorists. Moon Conspiracy theorists believe the deception of NASA faked the moon landing Apollo11 ??because President John F. Kennedy wanted the United States beat the Russians in the race to become the first man land on the moon. More fuel for the conspiracy theory are the facts and fiction points documented in the 2002 film, Dark Side of the Moon, which illustrates how carefully deception television cameras can produce images misleading. In the documentary, Stanley Kubrick's widow, reports that President Nixon asked Kubrick and other Hollywood producers to ensure opportunities for promoting the first step of man on the moon was not lost. NASA needs an enormous public support from the Apollo 11 mission to fund its space efforts in the future. President Nixon feared that live images can not be transmitted from the moon. It is suggested that with the help of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and Stanley Kubrick, that the Apollo 11 mission was faked.In MoonThe the shadow of the Apollo 11 moon landing was, in fact, real. NASA provides explanations for many of the challenges of the conspiracy theory website Great Moon Hoax. Rebuttal others to the challenges of the Apollo Moon can be found at sites not as BadAstronomy.com NASA. The most convincing refutations of the astronauts themselves.In from September 2007 Ron Howard film, documentary, In the Shadow of the Moon, was released in theaters across the country. In the Shadow of the Moon shows real footage taken by astronauts during the Apollo missions from 1968 to 1972. The 12 surviving Apollo astronauts who walked on the moon tell their personal stories in the film. The original film reels are considered so valuable that NASA's stored in liquid nitrogen. In the Shadow of the Moon was screened at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2007 and won the World Cinema Audience Award: Documentary. I was at the Sundance Film Festival 2007 selection of the shadow of the moon and listened as Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin and film director David Sington address public comments about the big joke of the moon. Sington common sense question: "If it was a joke, why we do it again and again?" Facts about Apollo Moon missions MissionsThere six Apollo landing on the moon between 1968 and 1972: Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and the astronauts 17.The personal safety mascot is none other than Snoopy, the dog of the beloved Peanuts comic strip. Twelve men walked on the moon and all are alive. Armalcolite is a mineral first discovered by the crew of Apollo 11 in the Sea of ??Tranquility. The name comes from the three astronauts of Apollo 11, Armstrong, Aldrin and COLlins.Apollo 11 astronauts ate only two meals per day during the mission: a food was bacon squares, peaches, sugar cubes, cookies, coffee and pineapple and grapefruit drink. Meal two was beef stew, cream of chicken soup, date fruitcake, grape punch and orange ship drink.Apollo 16 were names of stars: the command module was Gaspar and the lunar module Orion. Apollo 16 delivered to the Moon: the state flag of each of the 50 U.S. states and 25 U.S. flags. More About Smithsonian Exhibits and Apollo lunar module of Apollo and other artifacts are on display at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia near Washington Dulles International Airport. This museum opened its doors in December 2003 and is a museum that accompanies the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum in the National Mall in Washington DC The exhibition Udvar-Hazy Center some of the artifacts in the world's most important aviation , found in various media and large buildings. In November 2004, the James S. McDonnell Space hanger window open with the axis, the space shuttle Enterprise. During your visit, you can also see the air traffic at Dulles International Airport, Donald D. Engen Observation Tower or watching a movie at the IMAX Theatre. Sources: Apollo 11http: / / www.nasm.si.edu/collections/imagery/apollo/AS11/a11.htmThe Gran Luna Hoaxhttp: / / Acts science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2001/ast23feb_2.htmNASA: Humans in Spacehttp: / / www.nasa.gov / facts / Space / index.htmlDark Moonhttp side: / / www.cbc.ca/passionateeyesunday/feature_161103.htmlIn the shadow of the Moonhttp: / / www.intheshadowofthemoon.com/
Many of my clients have, unfortunately, initiated the design of their kitchen without an understanding of the extent of what is actually involved in the process, in terms of design, budget, timeline and other issues. In these cases, our design process together, was frustrating for the client and for me. As a result, this article will clarify the process so that you will have the opportunity to become better informed before you begin your kitchen project, thereby avoiding uninformed decisions or possibly spending time and/or money needlessly.
This article is not about the specific design features of your kitchen and how to design it. There are many good resources available for that. Instead, it is about the process of designing your kitchen. It is meant to help in getting a head start and to expose anyone who is, or might be, embarking upon the design of a new or remodeled kitchen, to the first and most important step – Planning.
Designing a kitchen for a new or existing home is a big investment in time, money and energy and it is sometimes stressful and challenging. Unfortunately, some vendors and TV programs don’t like to dwell on this aspect and therefore mislead the consumer regarding the actual amount of time and effort that is required. Even though creating a new kitchen is challenging, most clients say that the results are more than worth the effort. I hope that the information provided herein will be a helpful contribution toward having you well on your way to a successful project.
Before you begin the process of designing your new kitchen, you will need to set the criteria for the design. I recommend that you engage a professional kitchen designer that not only designs the cabinet layout, but designs every element of the kitchen and is involved throughout the entire project, so that the final result will be a cohesive design that reflects optimum function and style. The designer will not only help you create a beautiful, efficient, kitchen but will save you significant time and money and you will both have fun developing your joint creation. I trust that what follows will get your energy flowing and thoughts racing, in preparation for actually embarking upon your journey. And, it “is” a journey!
THE KITCHEN OF TODAY
The kitchen has traditionally been the most important room in the house because cooking and sharing food has long been central to family life. Meals will always be important, but cooking has, in some cases, significantly changed. The grocery industry has focused on replacements for home meals and hundreds of restaurants have incorporated “to-go” in their business model. Whether we cook frequently or not, kitchens remain the foundation of family life because it is where we live and gather. It is where most of us start and end our days and share the information of our day.
Today’s kitchens serve more roles than ever before: entertainment center, home office, cooking and dining space. The electronics for an entertainment center may include TV, music and internet connection and the office area may have a desk, files, computer and bookshelves.
THE FIRST STEPS
Determine with your family, who uses your current kitchen and how, and discuss the conveniences you would like to have in the new version. Make a scrapbook of articles and notes on kitchens and kitchen features that interest you and photographs of kitchens you like. Evaluate how and when you cook, where you serve meals to whom and how often you entertain and how you entertain. Inventory your dishes, silverware, serving pieces, cookware, linens, and your typical grocery storage requirements so that you can be sure that the new design accommodates everything.
It seems that no matter how much time you budget for a remodeling project, it usually takes longer than you expected. For a complete remodel, the down time during construction can be at least two or three months and much longer, depending upon the size and extent of the project. Your family needs to eat in the meantime. So, before construction starts make arrangements to store, heat and clean up, enough to keep you going until the kitchen is back on-line. Many of my clients who have had the good fortune to have a bar sink in the family room, have moved in the old refrigerator and microwave near the bar sink and this combination becomes the interim kitchen during construction of the new one. The upside to this is that it provides a great rationale for eating out more often!
THE KITCHEN FOOTPRINT
Let’s start with the space you have available for the kitchen. Whether you are designing for a new home, or remodeling in an existing one, you are limited by how much space you have available in which to create your dream. If the space is fairly small, you will want to consider whether or not you have the option of expanding. You may be able to accomplish this in your existing home and, in a new home, very often you still have time to alter the architectural plan, if needed. In either case, if you can eliminate or relocate a wall or walls or add to the house to create more space for the kitchen, it will improve the function and value of the room significantly.
Of course, if you don’t create an addition to the house, and just remove or relocate a wall(s), you then have infringed upon a contiguous space and decreased its size, so you have to weigh which option is the best for you. Is it worth giving up the other space to increase the size of the kitchen? In my experience, if you can do without the adjoining space, it is much better to devote that extra space to the kitchen.
When you plan to remove or relocate a wall(s), the key factor to determine is, by so doing, will you encounter a load-bearing situation? This occurs when the wall(s) is part of the support system for the structure of the house. Usually a contractor can determine this. If the contractor is uncertain, you will need to have a structural engineer examine the structure to make that determination. If it is non load-bearing, when you are ready to start construction, the contractor can proceed to build out the space per the new plan. If it is a load-bearing issue, your local building authority will require that you retain a structural engineer or an architect to design a structural solution for removing or relocating the wall(s).
He or she will submit design drawings and calculations of the solution, to the building authority for approval and permit. Upon receiving the permit, when you are ready to begin construction, the contractor can then proceed to build-out the structure per the engineer’s or architect’s specifications. This is the process in California, based upon the state building standards, Title 24. The process in the other states is very similar.
In any case, once you have made the decision of whether or not to expand or re-configure, you will know the size and shape (footprint) of the space that you have available from a horizontal standpoint – Plan View.
You should also consider what size and shape the room will be from a vertical standpoint as well. If it is possible to increase the height of the room by raising, eliminating or altering an existing low ceiling or soffit, you should seriously consider taking advantage of this option. The additional height will provide more cabinet storage from the increased height of wall cabinets and the room will become more voluminous which is always more visually impressive and comfortable. From a construction standpoint, the load-bearing issues will apply to increasing the room height just as it applies to moving or eliminating walls.
Of course, in dealing with all of these design and construction issues and decisions that need to be made, you will not be alone. Your designer will be the pivotal person who will help you evaluate the choices you have available. He or she will produce drawings in order to visually demonstrate these options and will offer advice on which options are best and why.
I understand that this all sounds very tedious and problematic. In some sense these two words are a good description of the design/construction process. However, what I have outlined above is done thousands of times every day and most of those homeowners have survived and, as a result, now have the new, beautiful, functional, kitchen of their dreams. You notice I said “most”! Seriously, the project will be challenging and there will be some problems. This is just the nature of design and construction and that is why you should not proceed without experienced professional help throughout the process from the very beginning to the end.
UTILIZING YOUR KITCHEN
Are you an expert chef, who does it all: cooking, baking, barbecuing, or are you a minimal cook whose main goal is to just get a meal on the table for the family as expeditiously as possible, or are you somewhere in between? Do you always cook by yourself or do you often have family and friends help with the cooking? Do you often entertain and all flow into the kitchen while munching on your Brie between sips of chardonnay? Do you bake often and want a marble surface for that purpose? The questions can go on and on.
Some clients have large, prestigious, homes and entertain frequently and/or have large families. They may have someone do the cooking for them. Some of these types of projects may need the full treatment, such as a butler’s pantry or walk-in pantry, two islands, two refrigerators, two dishwashers, two microwave ovens, a wine cooler, a separate beverage cooler, a built-in espresso machine, sink, prep-sink and bar sink and glass-door cabinets to display the family heirloom china, etc.
Most clients require something substantially less than all of this, but I bring it up just to emphasize that how you utilize your kitchen has a strong influence on the design and therefore, as I mentioned, you should think about how you want to operate and what you want to accommodate in your kitchen. You can start to think about what type of appliances and features you would like. Think of the three major work areas of a kitchen: Food Prep (refrigerator and sink), Cooking (cook top, oven and microwave) and Cleanup (sink, dishwasher and recycling). You will find a myriad of styles and options available which you and your designer will need to carefully consider. More planning, of course!
HOW & WHERE YOU WILL EAT
You may prefer to be able to eat in the kitchen by having an island with seating. The size of the island that the room will accommodate will determine how many persons you can seat. Seating at an island reduces the storage space available in the island, so the balance of the kitchen storage will need to absorb this loss. You can basically sit at three counter heights: chair height (29-30″), counter height (36″) and bar height (42″).
If you have an adjacent breakfast room, you may want to eat there in the interest of having more storage space in the island. If the room will accommodate it, you may like the idea of a built-in booth in the breakfast room or kitchen, in lieu of a typical table and chairs. Many clients like to have the option of eating in both the breakfast room and at the island in the kitchen. In some cases there is no breakfast room and the dining room serves as both breakfast room and dining room. In any case, you should give these and other possibilities careful consideration.
THE DESIGN STYLE
There are many design motifs available to you: Traditional, Modern, Contemporary, Country, Craftsman, Cape Cod, etc. The design motif that you select will obviously heavily influence the selection of all of the other elements in the kitchen. The cabinet style and finish have the strongest influence on the design style of the kitchen. As I mentioned, you can start by collecting magazine photos of kitchens to get a feel for what you do and don’t like. They will give you great ideas for all things kitchen. Stock, semi-custom or custom cabinets have many different styles and finishes to offer and of course, custom cabinets can provide any design and finish.
The planning process will continue until every aspect of the total kitchen design is selected and specified. However, once you have established your footprint and vertical space, how you want to utilize your kitchen, how and where you want to eat, and your design motif, you are more than half way there. The planning process continues, on a smaller scale, as you are making more decisions about all of the items and issues that make up a total kitchen design.
Examples: Do you often make spaghetti and pasta, which requires filling a large pot with about four to six quarts of water? If so, you should have a pot-filler over the cook top or range top. Since there are only two of you and it takes a long time to fill up the dishwasher before you can wash the dishes, you should consider a two drawer dishwasher which enables you to wash one drawer at a time, thereby saving energy and providing you with clean dishes more often. Do you prefer an air switch in the countertop for the disposal or do you want the switch to be on the backsplash? Do you want a garbage disposal in the prep sink as well as the main sink? Do you want soft close on your cabinet drawers? Do you like the idea of pendant lighting above the island? Do you want a filtered water system? The questions go on and on!
The various categories you will be encountering in designing your new kitchen are as follows. This listing of categories will give you an idea of what is to come. I didn’t say it was easy!
APPLIANCES, CABINETS, HARDWARE, FLOORING, PLUMBING, COUNTERTOP, BACKSPLASH, LIGHTING/ELECTRICAL, WALL FINISH, FURNITURE, WINDOW TREATMENTS, ART WORK, ACCESSORIES AND CONSTRUCTION.
I trust that by reading this article, you now have an appreciation of how important careful planning is to the successful design of your kitchen. The more thought and quality time you devote to it, the better prepared you will be when you begin with your designer and the process will become easier and more efficient, which everyone involved will greatly appreciate.
Once you have made most of these macro-decisions that I have mentioned, you will be ready to tackle the micro-decisions that are coming next. As you can see by the examples I have mentioned and the listing of categories above, you have a lot more planning to do, but remember you are now over half way there. Be strong and resolute and I am sure that you will get through the entire process virtually unscathed. And, if you are thoughtful, organized and work in the spirit of mutual cooperation, you will probably have some fun too! Remember that not all of this is on your shoulders. Your professional designer will be by your side for the whole trip.
I sincerely hope that you have found this information helpful and I wish you the best of luck on your journey.